FACILITIES OF PUMPING & OF DEGASSING
All pumping equipment is built by principle of pumping “vacuum in a vacuum”. Vacuum in the system of pumping of a good is about 10-7-10-9 mm of mercury as a rule. The penning type pumps are used as high-vacuum facilities of pumping. Temperature of degassing is gain till 600 °С. Process of pumping is on automated control by microprocessor.
Thermal equipment (options for soldering of high-frequency currents, hydrogen stoves, vacuum stoves).
- Options for the current soldering.
Heating the electrodes of graphite’s through which a current is skipped in a few thousands ampere. The environment in the hubcaps is formigaz. Used for soldering of metal-ceramics and glass-to-metal wares.
- Options for soldering of high-frequency currents (concentrators soldering).
For soldering both of wares are used (glass-to-metal & metal-ceramics). Temperature of heating is gain till 2200 °С. The environment is formigaz or high vacuum. Structural implementation has more various.
- Hydrogen stoves.
Bell furnaces (cover furnaces) & mines with sluicing. General features are preliminary – pumping of air (instead of blowing out), filling with hydrogen, in the end – blowing-out (or expulsion) (ousting) of hydrogen nitrogen.
The row of stoves is automated. Temperature of heating is gain from 800 till 1350 °С. In the energetic plan stoves are very economical `cause of optimization of the number of thermal screens.
- Vacuum stoves.
Chambers, revolving furnaces and stoves with sluicing.
Pressure in the stoves of revolving furnace and stoves with sluicing is comparatively easily achieved at 10-7– 10-9 mm of mercury.
In the stoves with sluicing can be used the special construction of heater. It allows dissociating working space from the other volume of working chamber. High-vacuum facilities are used like the diffusive pumps, the working liquid butters are on silicon basis.
Equipment for the welding:
- an equipment for the contact welding;
- an equipment for the laser welding;
- an argon arc welding;
- an electron-beam welding.
THE JOINING OF METAL, GLASS, CERAMICS
The enterprise possesses technology of fabrication of soldering nodes from different material, as well as from ceramics corresponding to the high demands of vacuum tightness and mechanical tougness.
used solders: on the base of copper, gold, silver
equipment: general heating (bell-type and travelling ovens)
local heating (setting of solderings by the currents of high frequency)
ambience of the soldering: hydrogen, vacuum, mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen
JSC “Pluton” possesses technology of the welding of thin-walled, homogeneous and heterogeneous material.
Applicable types of the welding:
Connected material: stainless steel, copper, copper+iron, kovar+steel and others, all the manner of combinations of ferrous, and non-ferrous metals of the 0.08-1.05 mm thickness.
Welded joints are hermetized, vacuum-tighted, mechanical toughness corresponds to main material.
Making of cathodes.
For the different types of electro-vacuum devices of micro-wave range of wave-length produced on JSC “Pluton” in the department of the cathode systems the following basic types of effective cathodes are developed and made:
- traditional spongy oxide cathodes for magnetrons and tubes;
- incandescent filament oxide cathodes for magnetrons of mm range of wave-length in course of readiness time τ = 1,5 cut.;
- metal-porous wolfram – aluminates cathodes for tubes and magnetrons. The emission parameters and the term of service of these cathodes are regulated by the composition and the parameters of the porous body of emitters.
- floatmetall cathodes for powerful w -band magnetrons. The density of culling of amperage from these cathodes achieves a mark of 150 A/cm 2;
- floatmetall of palladium and bariums cathodes for magnetrons with a non-incandescent start.
The output of suitable wares at the use of similar cathodes is 80÷90% at the coefficient of the use of scarce and expensive material ~ 60÷70%.
For separate devices to which the promoted requirements are produced to the output parameters, the knots of cathodes before rising in wares are exposed to the different types of tests, including cyclic tests.
Nowadays with the purpose of reliability increase, stability and producing of parameters of emission during all term of service of devices, in JSC “Pluton” the researches on creation for the powerful magnetrons of the high efficiency combined and component cathodes’ knots are conducted.
The researches on modification of emitting surface of dispenser cathodes and inner-vacuum elements of wares by the means of powerful streams of impulse plasma can present considerable scientific and practical interest for the developers of electrovacuum devices.